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Alimony

IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE AT KNOXVILLE

DAVID ALLAN FOGLE, SR. V. MARDONNA SHAWN FOGLE

No. E2013-00997-COA-R3-CV-FILED-MAY 22, 2014

“Alimony” is defined, in pertinent part, by Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed., as [a] court-ordered allowance that one spouse pays to the other spouse for maintenance and support . . . after they are divorced. Alimony is distinct from a property settlement.  Tennessee recognizes four different types of alimony: rehabilitative alimony, transitional alimony, alimony in futuro, and alimony in solido. Each type addresses a specific need. Rehabilitative alimony is temporary support intended to assist the economically disadvantaged spouse in obtaining the education or training necessary to allow him or her to achieve a reasonable standard of living in comparison to the standard of living maintained by the parties during the marriage or to the post-divorce standard of living available to the other spouse. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(e)(1). Where rehabilitation is not necessary, transitional alimony may be awarded to assist the disadvantaged spouse in adjusting to the economic consequences of the divorce. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(g)(1). Alimony in futuro and alimony in solido are long-term forms of spousal support. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36- 5-121(f)(1), (h)(1). Alimony in futuro is typically awarded when a spouse is economically disadvantaged, but rehabilitation is not feasible, meaning that the disadvantaged spouse cannot achieve an earning capacity that will allow him or her to maintain an appropriate standard of living. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(f)(1). This type of alimony is awarded on a “long term basis or until death or remarriage of the recipient” spouse. Id. Alimony in solido, on the other hand, is a lump sum award of alimony, but it may be paid in installments over a specific period of time. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(h)(1). Courts typically award this type of alimony to adjust the division of marital property. Alimony in solido may also be awarded to assist the disadvantaged spouse in paying attorney’s fees. “The statutory framework for spousal support reflects a legislative preference favoring short-term spousal support over long-term spousal support, with the aim being to rehabilitate a spouse who is economically disadvantaged relative to the other spouse and achieve self sufficiency where possible.” “While this statutory preference does not entirely displace long-term spousal support, alimony in futuro should be awarded only when the court finds that economic rehabilitation is not feasible and long-term support is necessary.” In determining whether to award alimony, the court must first consider whether the spouse seeking alimony is economically disadvantaged. “Once the trial court has found a party to be economically disadvantaged relative to his or her spouse, it must determine the nature, amount, length of term, and manner of payment of the award.” In setting the type, duration, and amount of support, courts are guided by the following list of factors:

(1) The relative earning capacity, obligations, needs, and financial resources of each party, including income from pension, profit sharing or retirement plans and all other sources;

(2) The relative education and training of each party, the ability and opportunity of each party to secure such education and training, and the necessity of a party to secure further education and training to improve such party’s earnings capacity to a reasonable level;

(3) The duration of the marriage;

(4) The age and mental condition of each party;

(5) The physical condition of each party, including, but not limited to, physical disability or incapacity due to a chronic debilitating disease;

(6) The extent to which it would be undesirable for a party to seek employment outside the home, because such party will be custodian of a minor child of the marriage;

(7) The separate assets of each party, both real and personal, tangible and intangible;

(8) The provisions made with regard to the marital property, as defined in Tenn. Code Ann. §36-4-121;

(9) The standard of living of the parties established during the marriage;

(10) The extent to which each party has made such tangible and intangible contributions to the marriage as monetary and homemaker contributions, and tangible and intangible contributions by a party to the education, training or increased earning power of the other party;

(11) The relative fault of the parties, in cases where the court, in its discretion, deems it appropriate to do so; and

(12) Such other factors, including the tax consequences to each party, as are necessary to consider the equities between the parties.  Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(i). In addition to the factors found in Tennessee Code

Annotated section 36-5-121(i), the two most relevant factors in determining the amount of alimony awarded are the economically disadvantaged spouse’s need and the obligor spouse’s ability to pay. When considering these two factors, the primary consideration is the disadvantaged spouse’s need. Courts must also take into consideration the different roles a spouse may have in a marriage when considering an award of alimony. Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-5-121(c). “There are no hard and fast rules for spousal support decisions, and such determinations require a ‘careful balancing’ of the relevant factors.”

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